English 99 Sentence Patterns and Punctuation
1-4. PATTERNS JOINING TWO INDEPENDENT CLAUSES TOGETHER
1. Independent clause. Independent clause. Bob was up late last night. He overslept this morning. (Use a period between two independent clauses.)
2. Independent clause, “FANBOYS” independent clause. Bob was up late last night, and he overslept this morning. (Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction to join the two independent clauses.) FANBOYS= for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
3. Independent clause; independent clause. Bob was up late last night; he overslept this morning. (Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses.)
4. Independent clause; “conjunctive adverb,” independent clause. Bob was up late last night; consequently, he overslept this morning. (Use a semicolon, conjunctive adverb, and a comma to join the two independent clauses.
5- 8. PATTERNS JOINING AN INDEPENDENT CLAUSE AND A DEPENDENT CLAUSE
5 Dependent clause, independent clause. Because Bob was up late last night, he overslept this morning. (Always put a comma after the dependent clause when it comes before the independent clause.)
6. Independent clause dependent clause. . Bob overslept this morning because he was up late last night. (Usually no comma before the dependent clause when it comes after the independent clause. There is no comma when the dependent clause is essential information This is always the case when the dependent clause starts with “because” or “since.”)
7. Independent clause, dependent clause. I do not think Bob cuts classes intentionally, although he should get to bed earlier. (The dependent clause is added information.)
8. Dependent clause interrupts the Independent clause.
(Essential Information) Pilots who smoke dope shouldn’t fly.
(Non essential Information) A familiar nursery rhyme, which all school children know, is “Jack and the Beanstalk.”
9-11. OTHER SITUATIONS
9. Optional comma after an introductory word or phrase:
After breakfast I went to school. (no comma)
Hearing me call, you walked away.
10. Items in a series. Put a comma between items in a series. Bob likes to exercise by swimming, jogging, and cycling.
11. When a “fanboys” connects two items that are not Independent clauses or items in a series, there is no comma. I like eating pizza and drinking cola.