Types of Supporting Materials




1.   Receipts, photos, memos, manuscripts, maps, charts, graphs, paintings, drawings, journal entries, photos, etc.

2.   Texts (see below)

3.   Statistics – used with citation data and source.

4.   Testimony – the direct observation or personal experience of someone other than the speaker

4.1.                  Can be verbal or written or recorded (audio/video)

5.   Examples – (see below)

6.   Personal Experience – what the speaker has directly experienced

7.   Common Knowledge – Be careful with this – don’t fall into “Ad Populum Fallacy!”

8.   Direct Observation – what the speaker has directly seen




1.   Brief Examples – directly relate to audience’s likely knowledge and experience

2.   Hypothetical Examples – these are the “what if someone took” or “imagine a poor child” stories

3.   Anecdotes – a story with a punch-line that emphasizes your point

4.   Case Study – a fully developed scenario exploring and explaining the point you wish to make




1.   Books

1.1.                  Scholastic, Popular, Fiction, Non-Fiction, etc.

2.   Journal Articles

3.   Reference Works

3.1.                  Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, P.D.R., etc.

4.   Magazines

5.   Newspapers

6.   Government and Scholastic Publications

7.   Web Pages