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The relationship between one’s identity and culture is addressed in Chapter Seven.  The authors begin by defining the identity and providing examples of social identities.  With the concept well-established, the discussion shifts to the models of identity acquisition and development. The chapter concludes with an exploration of the dark side of identity: stereotyping, prejudice, racism, and ethnocentrism.    



I.        Identity: Defining the concept


II.      The influence of identity


III.     Examining social identities


          A.      Racial identity


          B.       Gender identity


          C.       Ethnic identity


          D.      National identity


          E.       Regional identity


          F.       Organizational identity


          G.      Personal identity


          H.      Cyberidentity and fantasy identity


I.                Other identities


IV.     Identity acquisition and development


          A.      Multistage identity development models


V.      Establishing and enacting cultural identity


VI.     Globalization and cultural identity


VII.    Competency and identity in intercultural interactions





Chapter five contextualizes the study of intercultural communication by providing overviews of cultural histories.  Although far from exhaustive, the chapter provides both the cultural background and a historical sketch of the United States, Russia, China, Japan, India, Mexico, and Islamic civilizations.  In addition, contemporary social issues facing each culture are also addressed.


I.        History’s Influence


II.       U.S. History

          Contemporary social issues


III.     Russian history

A.            Contemporary social issues


IV.     Chinese history

A.            Communicating history

B.            Contemporary social issues


V.       Japanese history

A.            Contemporary social issues


VI.     Indian history

A.            Contemporary social issues


VII.    Mexican history

A.             Contemporary social issues



VIII.   Historical overview of Islamic civilization

A.             Muslim demographics

B.             The age of ignorance (Jahiliya)

C.             The rise and spread of Islam

D.             Legacy of Islamic history


XI.       Developing historical memory competency for intercultural communication interactions








With the context of history and worldview to juxtapose against, Chapter Six examines the concept of values.  The authors begin by introducing caveats for understanding both perception and values before embarking on discussion of various models used to categorize and organize groups based on cultulral values. Models include: Kohls’ “The Values Americans Live By,” Hofstede’s  value dimensions,” Minkov’s monumentalism/flexhumility, Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s cultural orientations, and Hall’s high/low context cultures.  In addition, results of the GLOBE study are presented along with a review of face/face-work and cultural patterns in communication


I.        Perception’s influence


II.      Beliefs, values, and behaviors


I.                Understanding cultural patterns


II.             Choosing cultural patterns


V.      Applying cultural patterns


A.   Kohls’ “the values Americans live by”


1.    Personal control over nature


2.    Change


3.    Time and its control


4.    Equality/egalitarianism


5.    Individuality and privacy


6.    Self-help control


7.    Competition and free enterprise


8.    Future orientation


9.    Action/work orientation


10. Informality


11. Directness, openness, and honesty


12. Practicality and efficiency


13. Materialism


VI.          Other cultural patterns typologies


                B. Hall’s high-context and low-context orientations


1.    High-context


2.    Low-context


                 C.Hofstede’s value dimensions


1.    Individualism/collectivism


2.    Uncertainty avoidance


3.    Power distance


4.    Masculinity/femininity


5.    Long- and short-term orientation


                 VII.       Face and facework


VIII.  Cultural patterns and communication


IX.       Developing cultural value awareness








Chapter Eight focuses on the interrelationship between language and culture.  The importance and function of language is explained, as well as the connection between language and the meanings it represents. Before addressing issues related to language and intercultural communication competence, the authors differentiate between translators and interpreters while offering recommendations and advice. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the benefits of learning a second language.



I.        Functions of language


          A.      Social interaction


          B.       Social cohesion


          C.       Expressions of identity


II.      What is language?


A.             Characteristics of language


                        1. Words are only symbols

                        2. Words are arbitrary

                        3. Words evoke denotative or connotative meanings


III.Language and culture


A.   Language and thought


                    1.       Accent


                    2.       Dialect


                    3.       Argot


                    4.       Slang


B.             United States








C.             Interpreting


            1.Cultural considerations in interpreting

            2. Working with interpreters

                    1. Preparing for the session

                    2. During the session

            3. Interpreting and technology

            4. Developing language competence in the intercultural setting

            5. Learn a second language

            6. Be mindful

            7. Be aware of conversational taboos

            8. Be attentive to your speech rate

             9. Be conscious of differences in vocabulary

             10. Attend to nonverbal behavior

             11. Be aware of cultural variations in the use of language